Professional Development

15 - The peer-review system III
It usually takes 23 months from the moment we submit our manuscripts to the time we receive a response from the editor with his and the referees' comments. If the article is accepted but requires a major or minor revision, it will take us another 1-2 months to make the requested changes. Obviously, not all the changes requested by referees must necessarily be made, but we have to present our arguments in a new cover letter and comment on or answer the referees' recommendations point by point (this is usually requested by the editor).After submitting the revised manuscript with our comments, it will take another 1-2 months until we receive the final answer. If major revisions are recommended, the referees will review the manuscript once again, whereas the editor himself often reviews minor revisions. If their recommendations are not properly address, a second communication will most likely be received from the editor or referees.When the author/researcher receives the acceptance letter, it means the manuscript has been approved. At this stage, you may say the research is in press. It will then take another 4-5 months (highly variable, depending on the Journal) for the author to receive the galley proofs. The authors then have very little time (24 to 48 hours) to review these proofs and look for possible typos. This is the author's responsibility. Therefore, publishing a scientific article is a long-term process: it usually takes approximately one year from the moment you first send the original manuscript to the time you see it as an article published in the journal.The Internet has slightly reduced the time of this process, but not all journals use the Internet tools.